Planting material selection needs to be approached consciously, and all the subtleties must be taken into account.
There are three types of planting material of winter garlic:
– cloves (shelled garlic bulbs);
– garlic bulbils (seeds from the umbel capsule);
– garlic rounds (grow from bulbils after the first year of vegetation).
In May / June, winter garlic forms scapes, at the top of which, in place of a flower head, garlic bulbils develop. Once selected, sorted and dried, in the autumn they are planted in the field.
The following year, garlic bulbils weighing 0.5 to 5 grams form garlic rounds. And only in the second year will we get a full harvest of bulbs; that is, garlic development takes place in three stages over 2 years: garlic bulbils — garlic rounds — a regular garlic bulb.
Commercial garlic can also be obtained within one season. Shelled garlic cloves planted before the winter will yield a full crop the following year. BUT! Garlic grown in such a way, due to its biological peculiarities, may degenerate and lose its genetic potential. The yield sharply declines, the number of cloves increases or decreases, size and weight fall, growth intensity decreases, its taste qualities deteriorate, diseases and pests are transmitted. In this case, it is important for the bulb to be from the first reproduction, without diseases and pests.
When growing garlic bulbils, the seed fully renews and recovers genetically, and seeds have the lowest price. One of the method’s shortcomings is a longer waiting period to get the result (2 years) and the laboriousness of harvesting garlic rounds.
Garlic rounds are perfect planting material, which is revitalized against diseases and pests. It takes root and withstands winter better, yields are obtained the next year, bulbs are always larger, and there is no need for shelling. Its disadvantages include a significantly higher price than that of garlic rounds.
All our garlic is grown on a two-year cycle. Thus, we obtain elite, genetically improved garlic.
Types of Planting Material. The Main Characteristics
|Planting material type||Bulbils||Garlic rounds||Bulbs|
|Загальний опис||Seeds of the umbel capsule, which is transformed from a flower head.||Round cloves obtained by one year cultivation from bulbils.||Cloves with clove skin shelled from a mature garlic bulb grown from a garlic round or a clove.|
|Aspects of cultivation||In late spring - early summer, the plants bolt. A flower head is formed on top of them. The healthiest and strongest plants are selected to obtain quality seed. During the summer, the flower head transforms into an umbel capsule filled with small bulbils. Seeds are considered ripe when the outer shell of the capsule dries and cracks. The flower stalks are dried and shelled, and bulbils are calibrated (sorted by diameter). October is the planting period.||After the first season, large bulbils give garlic rounds, which are suitable for growing commercial garlic. From small rounds, one gets rounds of a large calibre, and already from them rounds for planting will grow the following year. The sowing period is selected a little earlier or simultaneously with planting winter garlic – October or November. Garlic rounds are harvested 2-3 weeks before reaping a crop of commercial bulbs. Usually this time falls on the second half of June. The harvested rounds are dried under cover that protects them from direct sunlight.||Garlic of the first reproduction is grown from garlic rounds. The planting time is October and November. After harvesting, the plants are dried and stored in bundles. The stem and roots are not cut off! When preparing for planting, the cloves are disinfected: 1. Disinfection. Prepare a 3% fungicide solution, adding an agent which includes minor nutrient elements. 2. Fumigation. Cloves are placed in a sealed container and treated with sulphur dioxide at the rate of 100 sulphur per 1 cubic meter of the container. This is aimed at destroying nematodes.|
|Advantages||1) Complexity of collecting bulbils; 2) A two-year waiting period to obtain a crop of market product.||1) A relatively high price. 2) Laboriousness in case of the digging system of cultivation.||1)Degeneration when using seeds of the third and subsequent generations. 2) It is necessary to shell garlic bulbs 3) Mechanized planting is unable to plant all the cloves with the basal plate downwards. 4) Lower frost tolerance|
|Disadvantages||1) Complexity of collecting bulbils; 2) A two-year waiting period to obtain a crop of market product.||1) A relatively high price. 2) Laboriousness in case of the digging system of cultivation.||1)Degeneration when using seeds of the third and subsequent generations. 2) It is necessary to shell garlic bulbs 3) Mechanized planting is unable to plant all the cloves with the basal plate downwards. 4) Lower frost tolerance|
|Size (diameter)||Large: 6-8 mm; Average: 4-5 mm; Small: 3-4 mm.||Large: 14 mm; Average: 10-13 mm; Small: less than 10 mm.||Large: 30 mm (6 g); Average: 25 mm (3-6 g); Small (unsuitable for planting): less than 25 mm or 3 g.|
|Amount of seed per hectare||50 - 70 kg per 1 ha||1000 -1200 kg per ha||About 2000 kg per 1 ha. Depends on the planting system and the average weight of the clove.|